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/ local news
When Colors Collide- Written by Jaime Johnston & Thomas
Tomczyk, Photos by Thomas Tomczyk
Bay Islands are gearing up for the first vote of the 2005 Honduran
election. On February 20, the country's major parties will conduct
internal elections to determine their respective candidates. Both
the National and Liberal parties have their campaigns in full swing,
as Islanders are called to the polls to voice their support.
Of the five political parties registered on the Bay Islands, only
the National and Liberal parties take part in the internal elections.
The National Party has three movements or tickets, and the Liberal
party has four movements, all competing against each other. In the
case of the Bay Islands, each movement carries six candidates: Presidential,
Congress (Diputado), and Mayor (Alcalde) for each of the four municipalities.
The three smaller parties - PINU, Christian Democrats and Honduras'
newest party, Democratic Union - don't take part in the internal
elections on the Bay Islands. "We don't participate in the
internal elections because we are smaller parties and have one movement
from the beginning," said Angel Gabriel Melendez, PINU candidate
for Bay Islands Congressman. According to Alex Villela, Roatan lawyer,
there are no 'non-party affiliated candidates' candidates in this
The voting rules for the internal elections vary from that of the
general election which will take place in November. For the internal
elections, a voter can only choose candidates from one party; however,
they are free to select candidates from different movements within
that party. This process was legislated by Congress before the 2001
federal election and gives more freedom to the voter in deciding
on individual candidates. "It separates President from Deputy
and Mayor. It's like a receiving a cold bucket of water for Congressman
because many of them are unknown in their municipalities,"
said Villela. When it comes time for the general election, voters
can select candidates from either party for each of the positions.
Representatives from each party typically observe voting at each
station. Across the Bay Islands, these stations are usually classrooms
in public schools. Voter registration in the four municipalities
ranges significantly. According to the Tribunal Nacional de Elecciones
in Tegucigalpa, Guanaja has 4,378 voters, Roatan Municipal has 14,370
registered and Jose Santos Guardiola has 5,130. Utila, the smallest
municipality, has 1,674 registered voters, around 20% of its population.
"In Utila, we have a lot of tourists and then people from the
mainland who vote back there," said Mayor Alton Cooper, "We'll
be lucky to get 1,000 to the polls." Mayor Cooper's office
has led several campaigns to encourage more participation from island
residents and improve voter registration.
Not everyone in the Bay Islands Department has seen campaigns on
their doorstep. One of the communities forgotten by the political
machine is Cayos Cochinos, home to 600-700 people, two resorts and
a Smithsonian Research Station. Roatan Municipal has no regular
presence on Cayos Cochinos. In September, 2004 Gov. Everett visited
the community. "We lose tax revenue that the people there should
be paying to Roatan," said Gov. Everett. He hopes that the
one of the political parties will help with the registration of
the Cayos Cochinos electorate in the general elections and provide
transport on voting day in November.
The situation does not only result in disenfranchisement of the
Cayos Cochinos population, but the eventually lead to the lose of
the jurisdiction of the archipelago to the department of Atlantida.
Most people living on Cayos Cochinos were born on the coast: in
Colon and Atlantida, and that is where they cast their votes- around
300 or so. That is enough votes to have swayed the 2001 elections
for Bay Islands Congress in favor of the Liberal Party candidate-
who lost the election by only 278 votes. "95% of the people
there vote Liberal," said Emilio Silvestri, Un Nuevo Tiempo
With, or without Cayos Cochinos, the Bay Islands Department is a
mosaic of potential electors and interests. Several candidates are
running for re-election; others are running for office decades after
first holding a government position. A political freshman is trying
to make the leap straight into Congress and dozens of other candidates
are trying to convince Islanders that they have the right combination
of smarts and savvy to lead them for the next four years.
Dorn Andy Ebanks, 36, has already been a governor [1999-2002] and
a city manager. Young, energetic, articulated and certainly not
a quitter. "I'm making history. I'm the first citizen of Roatan
who has managed to run on three different occasions," said
Ebanks. Running for mayor of Roatan alongside Rosa Danelia-Hendrix,
he is a part of Liberal Party's Siglo 21 movement.
Ebanks is a founder and shareholder in Caribbean Flight School in
La Ceiba. He makes his living as a commercial pilot with 2,200 flying
hours to his credit. He flies a 19 passenger turbo-prop for Tortuga
Air, 15 days on and 15 days off.
One of the main focuses of his campaign is improvement in island
opportunities for education. "I want to establish a major,
government funded university here," said Ebanks. "We have
the opportunities. We have the access. I have the contacts."
Ebanks has many ideas, big ideas, and he is certainly not afraid
to articulate them. "It's a shame that at this time still have
to use a hospital with 30 beds. My projection is for 300 beds."
To make his ideas become reality Ebanks promises to resign from
his piloting job if he gets elected mayor. "Many people are
seeking the office, but they do not account for the time to be there.
It's a full time job." Honduran law obliges a mayor to give
at least three hours a day to perform his or her duties. "You
cannot sit between two seats, or you will fall in-between them."
Ebanks doesn't see the willingness for many changes in the current
political establishment. Still, with all his energy, Ebanks is not
without a fault. "I think my weakness is being naive in believing
everybody," said Ebanks. "I'm a sucker for believing a
From a seasoned campaigner to a first-time contender, the Bay Islands
candidates come from various backgrounds and bring different perspectives
to the table. "I think running for the first time has some
advantages. We don't go in with the old ways of doing things. We
have a fresh start and can be straight up front with the status
of our goals," said Shawn Hyde, running for Bay Island Congressman
for the Un Nuevo Tiempo movement in the National Party.
a businessman from French Harbour, uses his personal experiences
to guide his political plans. "I was in the Roatan Hospital
the other day and I was shocked to see the conditions. They are
doing miracles with what they have, but their population is beyond
what the infrastructure can support," said Hyde, whose role
at family business Mariscos Hybur has led him to seek change in
the fishing industry. "I don't see the same future in the fishing
industry for my son that my father saw for me. (
) We need
to expand our market; we have depended too long on the market that
we built in the United States," said Hyde.
The political rookie is not shy to question current projects on
the islands. "I don't know where the PMAIB money was spent.
Maybe it's my naïveté, but if there was money for contracts,
why wasn't it spent here? People on the island should have had the
right to be offered these jobs first, especially government jobs,"
For his campaign, Hyde has canvassed door to door, meeting and greeting
voters with a broad smile and a charged eagerness. Despite a hectic
schedule, Hyde maintains a sense of humor and a team spirit. "We
are all Islanders. When the election is over, whatever the people
decide, the partisan stuff will come to an end."
However, as long as the campaign clocks are ticking, the lines are
clearly drawn. "Everybody for themselves," Paula Bonilla,
40, described the Liberal Party's primary election effort. According
to the Jaimista mayoral candidate, there is no coordination of issues
or strategies among the four Liberal Party movements represented
on the Bay Islands.
Bonilla hopes to follow in the footsteps of Lolita Brown, the last
woman elected as Mayor of Roatan. "I don't have any weaknesses
the community deserves the best and I am the best candidate,"
said Bonilla. Confident, comfortable and elegant, she sees herself
as someone from "the barrio next door." She went to school
at the Juan Brooks School, before getting her law degree at Tegucigalpa's
Bonilla would like to help small businesses in getting a larger
share of the tourist and cruise ship business. Another idea Bonilla
brings to the table is the development of sports on the island.
"Municipality should construct ball fields on the island."
Four years ago, Bonilla lost a close congressional race to Evans
McNab. This time she is trying to gain the Liberal party's place
in the mayoral race. "If I lose now, this could be the last
time I am campaigning," said Bonilla. "Still, in politics
you just never know."
It is the unpredictability of public office that keeps it interesting.
No one could have predicted that 35 years after his first term as
mayor, Julio Galindo is ready to do it again. "I feel morally
obligated to do something for the island. If I didn't do something,
I would feel guilty," said Galindo.
Energetic, articulate, endearing, Galindo connects with whomever
he addresses. He is confident enough to buy an automatic-dialing
telephone machine and leave political message with a phrase "I
love you" in it addressed to all Roatanians.
Running on the National Party Pepe Lobo ticket, Galindo is a proponent
of a Department wide census. "How do we solve problems unless
we really know what we have?" said Galindo, owner of Anthony's
Key Resort in Sandy Bay. He acknowledged that the first year serving
as Alcalde would be difficult because he would be working with the
past administration's Lps. 60 million budget.
see tons of advantages in joining the two [Roatan] municipalities,"
said Galindo, "The Municipal has to be thinking like a business.
Roatan is developing, but not in an organized way." Galindo
was elected and served as Bay Islands Congressman from 1990 to 1994.
He believes the next Alcalde should serve full-time, as opposed
to sharing time between the municipality and another day job. "I
have more experience, I have a better vision, and now, I have the
Galindo is not the only former mayor seeking to re-enter the Alcalde
office. Guanaja's Rafael Zapata hopes to re-emerge into his Municipality
after a 19-year absence from politics. "I saw needs increasing
and I didn't see anything happening," said Zapata, "If
you refuse to help, you are letting people down."
Zapata, 56, owns two shrimp boats and operates Zapata y Hijos, a
family-run general store and gas station. Running for the Esperanza
movement under the Liberal party, he is concerned about Guanaja's
social problems. "Here, 50% or more of the people are unemployed.
Fuel prices are crippling the fishing industry and we need our law
and order system cleaned-up," said Zapata, who served as Mayor
of Guanaja from 1982-1986. During his time in office, the electric
company BELCO was constituted, water systems to the cay were improved
and the municipality invested in a ballfield on the cay.
Zapata believes that tourism is key for Guanaja's development. "We're
living in a different age now. I think the new road will open the
island up for tourism," said Zapata. First, Zapata believes
that community clean-ups should be organized and educational programs
be established. "We need a trades school on this island. A
lot of boys are coming out of school after grade six and there is
nothing for them. I want them to be able to learn mechanics or carpentry
here on the island."
Educational programs have also been a focus of Congressman Evans
McNab's first term. "For the first time in the Bay Islands,
we have food programs in the public schools and we are beginning
to implement bilingual education into the public schools as well,"
said Congressman McNab. Since he decided to run for re-election,
Congressman McNab has campaigned door to door and outlined the accomplishments
of the current administration to voters.
On any given day, he has a room full of people waiting to see him
at his office or waiting outside of meetings. They are there to
voice community needs, ask for support or just five minutes of his
time. He deals with each person with a direct but attentive manner;
questions are answered frankly with a firm handshake before parting.
"It's time-consuming to campaign while you still hold office,
but it also gives you a chance re-introduce yourself to people and,
through talking with them, it reinforces the issues that we are
facing," said Congressman McNab.
In 2001, Congressman McNab ran under the National Party, facing
Paul Bonilla for the one Bay Islands' seat in Congress. It was his
first time holding political office. Now campaigning on the Work
& Security ticket under Presidential candidate Pepe Lobo, Congressman
McNab wants to increase the judges assigned to the islands and also
investigate government-subsidized fuel programs for fishermen. "I've
learned so much since I took office; knowing how and who to lobby
with is a learning experience," said Congressman McNab, "I
am determined to come back in and complete the jobs I began. Who
knows the community better?"
Like the Bay Islands Congressman, Utila Mayor Alton Cooper is learning
the demands of running for re-election firsthand. "It's not
fun, but I am somehow able to juggle it all." The decision
to pursue another term was a difficult one, even for the confident
Utila Mayor. "At one point, I had backed out of running again.
My business had suffered, I have a family. There's a lot of responsibility
and it can be overwhelming," said Mayor Cooper. It was then
that some community members began stopping by his home and the office
to voice their support for his re-election. "In Utila as far
as politics go, gaining someone's support is as important as actually
gaining a vote," explained Mayor Cooper.
Mayor Cooper is a member of the Liberal Party, under the Esperanza
movement. In operating the smallest Municipality in the Bay Islands,
Mayor Cooper stresses the importance of communication. "We
have a large tourist population and a lot of people from the mainland
and you have to find a way to integrate those populations together,"
said Mayor Cooper, "I think our size allows us to distribute
money more evenly and fairly than perhaps on Roatan." With
a deliberate and self-assured tone in his voice, Mayor Cooper says
he will focus on improving Utila's water systems and develop infrastructure
to open the island up.
A contrast to the vocal Mayor Cooper, Jose Santos Guardiola's Clint
Bodden is a quiet, soft-spoken mayoral candidate. Since August 2004,
Bodden has been the general manager of RECO. In 1984, he lost the
race for the mayoral seat in Oak Ridge. Now, he is running again
with the Work & Security movement under the National Party.
Bodden's goals for his mayoral term would include a range of social
infrastructure. "Increasing municipal's revenue from tourism,
improving health, education and the road system," are the focus
of Bodden's attention as a mayoral candidate. He is still able to
be self critical: "I have to get out more with the crowd,"
Bodden may be in the minority when it comes to joining up with campaign
crowds. Communities around the island have been bombarded with rallies,
walk-around's and politically-hosted social events. At the National's
Work and Security movement headquarters, weekly strategy meetings
are conducted at Las Palmas. "You have to have a plan. You
have to get out and meet the voters. You invite everyone, from all
different backgrounds and you give them your plan," said Larry
McLaughlin, President of the National Party's Bay Islands' chapter
for the last six years. In addition to events, billboards have been
erected and bumper stickers are affixed to anything they can stick
to. Trucks with loud speakers have become a mainstay on Roatan's
highway. Not quite coherently audible, the trucks are decorated
in party colors and patrol the road in daily loops, booming out
campaign messages over loudspeakers.
Party advertising seemed to have peaked with the visit of several
presidential candidates to the Bay Islands. "We had [Liberal
Presidential candidate] Mel Zelaya here in Guanaja and had about
300-400 people turn out to hear what he had to say," said Guanaja
mayoral candidate Rafael Zapata. When Zelaya came to Roatan, he
was met at the airport by supporters with signs and flags. He was
followed from stop to stop by a convoy of taxis plastered with campaign
posters for Zelaya's running mates, Dale Jackson and Jerry Hynds.
Currently serving as Alcalde of Roatan Municipal, the popular Mayor
Jerry Hynds is running for Congressman. However, not everyone has
followed Mayor Hynds into his transition as a candidate for Congress.
Ms. Myrthys Hyde, 43, a housecleaner from Coxen Hole, has voted
in the past two elections for Mayor Hynds, but this year she sees
no clear candidate for Congress. "We don't need him [Mayor
Hynds] there. We want him here working as Alcalde for us,"
Representing the department in Congress is especially important,
as Bay Islands, alongside Gracias a Dios, has only one Congress
seat. Typically, Honduran Congressmen remain in office for several
terms, allowing them to pursue long term goals, lobby and rise through
the party rank.
This sentiment is shared by Wellington Hynds, 38, of Hottest Sparrow,
near Crawfish Rock. "I think it would be good to re-elect our
Congressman [National Party candidate Evans McNab]. Nobody knew
him in the last election and now people see what he did and can
appreciate him," said Wellington Hynds who voted Liberal in
the last federal election. On January 21, Wellington Hynds attended
a campaign event for National Party Presidential candidate with
the Work and Security movement, Pepe Lobo. At a rally in Mt. Pleasant,
nine school buses and dozens of taxis transported supporters to
the rally. The group was met by a presentation of Garifuna dancers
and a truckload of free soft drinks. When the rally ended, hundreds
of supporters followed on to the next stop, leaving behind a mess
of crumpled posters and empty drink bottles. A group of kids collected
the litter in the rain, disposing of the mark left by the yet another
political machine to visit the island.
As the internal election date approaches, radio and television ads
increase. There are more posters, more stickers, more promises.
Campaign coordinators are busy scheduling last-minute strategy meetings.
The candidates push ahead, canvassing every last barrio. As the
sounds of the loud-speaker trucks dull, stickers wear away and the
free fresco supply dwindles, voters are left to draw their own conclusions.
On February 20, they will judge for themselves: who is the best
LEFT: Liberal Party taxi convoy driving to Presidential
candidate Mel Zelaya's rally in Punta Gorda. TOP RIGHT:
Young Pepe Lobo supporter after a National Party rally in
Mt. Pleasant on January 21. BOTTOM ABOVE: A lifetime
supporter of the National Party, Carmelida Rosa Mejia, 62,
of Los Fuertes, attends rally in Mt. Pleasant.
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______________back to top
My Friend Scooby- by
Thomas Tomczyk, Managing Editor
you embarrass a dog? Well, yes. I've done it before. And if dogs
have shame, they also likely have its close cousin: guilt.
Example? For months, I was explaining to my dog that eating garbage
is wrong. He spent part of his life on the streets so un-learning
a habit of snacking at garbage dumps is all but impossible. Still,
I tried and failed many times.
One day, I called him upstairs with no knowledge of what he was
up to in the garden. He came up slowly, tail between his legs, head
down and a look of disgust with himself on his snout. Why? I think
it is because he felt guilty, ashamed of doing something that he
knew was wrong. I didn't have to scold him. He just knew that something
that he'd done, even without my knowledge, was wrong. Yes, I think
dogs have shame - however temporary and fleeing a feeling. Nevertheless,
it is there.
Everyone knows Scooby steals the bread from a nearby bakery. For
all intents and purposes, it's not even stealing, just kidnapping
bags of stale bread that the bakers leave scattered around the building.
There are certain habits from his past that I have to accept, others
I just cannot. Stealing: maybe. Begging: definitely not.
That is why the real test comes at parties where there are people
and food and everyone is in a generous mood. Opportunities abound
and Scooby finds the guest with the biggest plate of food. Then,
he hypnotizes him/her with a long, guilty stare-down. That is just
shameless in my book.
"I eat, therefore I am" is Scooby's day-to-day motto to
live by. He will never refuse food. The one exception is if he's
sick. Once, he got a stomach ache and skipped breakfast in order
to eat grass. For 20 minutes, he would walk around the garden looking
for a particular green straw. An hour later, he was eating his breakfast.
Scooby, the security dog? Maybe in the past. Now Scooby has re-classified
himself to a companion dog. He likes to spend more and more time
on a carpet in front of the door. Perhaps it's a sign of middle
age you say? Well, according to my calculations, Scooby is barely
in his late 20s (dog years: 4 x 7 = 28). I'm just wondering what
he'll be like in his dog 40s.
seem always interested in Scooby. He is a perfect non-controversial
subject matter. Many conversations start "And how is Scooby?"
Sadly, the ex's never ask how I feel.
Scooby ignores 98% of all dogs which seems to infuriate them completely.
On the other hand, 1% of dogs he hates with all his dog soul. Some
dogs he just hates and loses his cool immediately. I don't know what
makes him turn that way, he just does. The other 1% are the female
dogs. Not every female dog is worthy of Scooby's attention, mind you.
The one female dog Scooby did find attractive was a three legged,
scrappy looking mutt with one pup. The female dog had a number of
skin diseases and was hopping around on three legs, as a rear-left
leg was broken and unusable. Perhaps Scooby doesn't go for all these
appearances and saw something attractive beneath the surface. I hope
I never find out.
The final myth: dogs are faithful. Not true in Scooby's case. I was
considering renaming him to the more appropriate name "traitor,"
when after barely 48 hours away from me, he completely entrusted himself
to a temporary master. Upon my return, behold, he was barking at my
car. Scooby has learned that life is unpredictable and cruel, owners
change, and in order to stay on top, a dog has to learn to adapt quickly.
Faithfulness is only skin deep.
Postpones Classes for Another Semeste
at Bay Islands University have been postponed for an additional semester.
Originally scheduled to resume operation in January, BIU faces further
delays in their accreditation process. Officials from the University
of Honduras need to inspect the university for a final time to verify
that BIU has met accreditation standards. According to BIU Director
Dr. Perry Elwin, the inspection was scheduled for December, but was
postponed due to finance problems at the University of Honduras. "We
have met all the requirements for accreditation, but we need the inspectors
to come. We were told that the University of Honduras lacked the funds
to support the inspection in their 2004 budget," said Dr. Elwin,
"The inspection is now scheduled for February." Since the
last inspection, BIU has implemented changes to the classrooms and
to their internal rules and regulations.
BIU opened on May 5, 2003, but ceased operation in August 2004 to
await accreditation. Dr. Elwin estimates that 60-80 students were
enrolled for the 2005 winter semester.
of them, Raul Foreman, 25, completed three semesters in the Engineering
and Computers program at BIU. He is anxious to resume studies. "I
am waiting because I have no other choice. Some people travel to the
mainland to finish, but I can't do that," said Foreman, a full-time
RECO employee. According to Foreman, no one from BIU has contacted
him to advise him of the semester's status.
"I do have students calling me for information and I am sorry,
but it's out of our hands. The delay is not due to lack of action
on our part," said Dr. Elwin. The university office will re-open
in February. Dr. Elwin indicated that the university now plans to
start courses in the spring semester in May 2005. "I will keep
on waiting and I will be back in class whenever they open," said
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Back by Jaime Johnston
Bay Islands Businesses Help Fund Social Programs
Municipal donated a lot of land in Coxen Hole for a new day care
center to be constructed. According to Tugliani, the land must be
used before the current Alcalde is still in office, leaving only
a year to begin and complete the project. "Our priority is
to start the project. Day care is very important. We need water
and proper bathing facilities, the kids need a place to run and
play," said Tugliani who manages Tri-R Resort in Sandy Bay.
The Tugliani family donates money to cover gaps between the expenses
and donations to the center. Other Roatan businesses have become
involved. Teri Anderson of Coxen Hole's Yaba Ding Ding donates Lps.
1,000 monthly to the center; Larry McLaughlin of the Aduanas office
covers the utility expenses and Truly Nolan donated extermination
services. "We would like to meet with different business owners
because we need the cooperation of everyone to make this work,"
said Olga Flores, Supervisor of Softly's Angels and Coordinator
of the First Lady's Office in Coxen Hole.
Softly's Angels is one of the many projects aided by the First Lady's
Office. The Coxen Hole branch was established by Sra. Aguas Ocaña
de Maduro on January 16, 2004. The Roatan office serves the entire
Bay Islands and is one of four offices in Honduras. Other offices
are located in San Pedro Sula, Tegucigalpa and Choluteca; they are
set up to focus on the social needs of the people of Honduras. On
January 22, the First Lady's office donated equipment worth $53,000
to the Roatan hospital. According to Hospital Director Dr. Roberto
Gonzales, the most important of the gifts is an electrocardiograph
that will become a welcome addition to the one serving at the hospital
for the last five years. "She [Aguas Ocaña] always has
something to give for everyone: to the children, to the firemen,
now to us," said Dr. Gonzales. Flores, who attended the donation
ceremony on behalf of the First Lady, noted that this is one of
over a dozen projects supported by the First Lady's Office. "I
think there are a lot of forgotten people on the island," said
Flores who has supervised the office since itsinception.
Accepting the First Lady's office donations for the Roatan Hospitla:
Hospital Director: Dr. Jose Roberto Gonzales, Olga Flores, Father
Faro, Gov. Clinton Everett, Alejandro Pacheco.
the Bay Islands, there are international, national and local organizations
working to improve social situations of those living here. Often,
we hear of the work of non-profit groups and non-government agencies,
but there is a quiet presence behind the some of these projects.
Business communities are finding ways to contribute to social
work on the Bay Islands.
Just before Christmas, 161 Roatan children were invited to a special
holiday party. The event was hosted by Palmetto Bay Plantation,
on behalf of the Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association (FCCC) and
the Bay Islands Chamber of Tourism (CANATURH-BI). This was a program
started nine years ago and is spearheaded by Terri Cannici, FCCC
Manager, Programs and Events. The organization now distributes
to nearly 5000 underprivileged children at 25 cruise destinations.
Norwegian Sea was chosen as the Christmas ambassador to Roatan;
Sea staff member Carlos Abella recruited 28 volunteers for the
The invitees included 38 children from Gravel Bay Orphanage, 19
from Sandy Bay Orphanage, five children from a Lions Club sponsorship
program and 99 Coxen Hole youngsters. Coordinated through CANATURH-BI's
Ana Svoboda, Palmetto Bay Plantation Manager Cecilia Chamer organized
the 4-hour event where kids played games on the beach, attended
a barbeque and enjoyed a visit from "Santa Claus". Each
child received a personal gift. Svoboda arranged for a donated
flat bed truck from Anthony's Key Resort to carry the presents;
two school busses were donated by Marco Galindo's Tabyana Beach
Resort to transport the children and CANTURH-BI coordinated two
small buses to pick up the Norwegian Sea volunteers.
Two days later, Softly's Angels Day Care Center in Coxen Hole
received donated gifts for 23 needy children, donated by the members
of the Bay Islands Chamber of Tourism. Softly's Angels was established
in 2004 by Eloise Vincent and Vivian Tugliani in coordination
with American organization Softly International. The center has
since changed its name and become solely dependent on local donations.
"We have two employees to care for the children and their
salaries are paid by donations from Henry Morgan's Resort,"
said Softly's Angels Director, Vivian Tugliani. The center provides
free day care for 17 children of single mothers; children range
in age from six months to ten years.