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Roatan's Ancient Underwater Secret
By John Morris Photographs courtesy of: James "Doc" Radawski

Shipwreck Discoveries Could Change History Books
Diver measuring the ribs of PR-1.

There are many shipwrecks in Roatan for diving, most intentionally sunk and strategically placed for accessibility and minimal disturbance to the world's second largest barrier reef as well as additional reef creation. Yet with the island's pirate and colonial conflict past, the possibility of much older wrecks is quite intriguing both for marine archeologists and for treasure hunters. Such was the case in 1968, when the Oceanograficos de Honduras was granted a permit from the Honduran government to explore such possibilities in the waters off Old Port Royal. What they found in the ensuing 5 years of exploration and excavation still to this day cannot be explained, and if it could be, history books would have to be rewritten.

The fascinating tales of treasure hunting by Mitchell Hedges and Howard Jennings in and around Old Port Royal are well documented and even remembered by those in the 80 to 100 year old age group still living in St Helene where both explorers paid for artifacts during their time here, yet they were strictly land and shallow water searchers, lacking the necessary equipment to dive for wrecks. The man who was to change that arrived on Roatan by accident. After logging over 15,000 nautical miles exploring both coasts of Central and South America for sunken treasure laden vessels on his 56 foot gaff-masted schooner, the Santa Maria, Captain Michael "Mick" Johnston, was in dire need of some dry dock repairs. While in Puerto Cortes, he was told that the only place nearby that could help him was in Oak Ridge on the island of Roatan, and thus, in 1965, the Santa Maria arrived in the Bay Islands and never left.

Though the necessary dry dock repairs needed were taken care of fairly quickly, the stories Mick heard from the locals sounded too good to be true and were too good not to investigate. Sunken galleons and British frigates were right in front of him and he knew he had to find them. A quick trip back to the United States to confirm Roatan's colonial history cemented the deal and thus his unexpected odyssey to find what he had spent two years searching for began. First and foremost, to be sure of his safety, Mick knew he had to get a permit from the Honduran government to begin his search. Hedges and Jennings had already ruffled enough feathers and he did not want to take the chance to be seen in the same light, so he went to Tegucigalpa to learn what had to be done. It was 1967 and Honduras was under military rule. Strangely enough, the Ministry of Archeology was under the Ministry of Education which in turn was under the Ministry of Defense. Completely understanding the chain of command, Mick went to the top. Negotiations and agreements were made with the Honduran government as to the purpose and rules of this mission, listed below as presented in the paper submitted by Oceanograficos De Honduras at the 6th International Conference on Underwater Archeology in Charleston, South Carolina on January 7th 1975:

1. It is legally established a scientific mission to perform marine archaeological work in the country.
2. Specific terms of the contract provide and insure that the work shall be done in accordance with good marine archaeological procedure.
3. A marine archaeological zone is established.
4. All artifacts recovered remain property of the government.
5. Fifty percent of the artifacts recovered are loaned back to the contracting marine archaeological organization. The objective of this provision is to provide for the preservation, study and display of the artifacts.
6. The contractor holds film and publication rights in return for providing governmental agencies with copies of published material.
7. The contractors have the concession to create an archaeological museum in Roatan to display the artifacts discovered.
8. The contractors may loan part of the collection to qualified foreign institutions with approval of the government.
9. Any material recovered which does not have archaeological or cultural value will be treated under the existing salvage laws of the country.

Port Royal in the early 1970's.

Permit in hand, Mick needed help and posted a want ad back in his home of southern California for divers to hunt for sunken vessels. Though he never actually saw the ad, James "Doc" Radawski heard about the strange and exciting opportunity in the far away land of Roatan from a friend. Having recently lost his job and truly sick of the California freeways, he applied and was accepted. And so his journey began. A DC-3 from Los Angeles to Mexico City (layover for the night), a DC-3 from Mexico City to Tegucigalpa (layover for the night), a DC-3 from Tegucigalpa to San Pedro Sula (layover for the night), a DC-3 from San Pedro Sula to La Ceiba (landing on a grass field specifically for The Standard Fruit Company) and finally a DC-3 to Roatan landing on the beach between houses and palm trees at the site of the current airport. It was 1970 and as with Mick, Doc's life was about to change forever. He also never left the island.

There were no roads then, just a jeep trail from Coxen Hole to Paul Adams' nearly completed Anthony's Key Resort, still thriving to this day. Doc needed to get to Oak Ridge and learned that the only way was on the "mail boats" that ran every other day except for Sundays. Unfortunately, the day Doc landed the mail boats were off duty, so another layover in Coxen Hole. At 6AM the next day, Doc flagged a boat and got a ride to Oak Ridge via French Harbor, French Key Settlement and Jonesville. The final stop was at the Happy Landing Bar in Oak Ridge and a quick search for Mick. He was not hard to find.

The Santa Maria sank in the hurricane of 1969, so Doc only heard the stories. Prior to his arrival, Mick had secured a floating base for the mission, a 100 ft converted minesweeper out of French Harbor, complete with living quarters and laboratories, aptly named "The Rambler" along with a 30 ft x 18 ft barge on which to launch the explorations. Doc was impressed. Doc was also quickly caught up on the protocol of the search, mainly that The Rambler was required to have a Honduran soldier aboard at all times to be sure rules were followed and that Howard Jennings, still living on the island, did not like the Rambler's presence. The Honduran soldiers were changed on the monthly basis as it was suspected that the newly permitted gringos would corrupt a particular individual if treasure was found, and Jennings did his best to disrupt the newest archeological expedition. It is reported that at one point, when The Rambler and the associated barge were anchored in the waters in front of Jennings' land, he promptly came out to ask how long they intended to stay. Without a satisfactory answer, he returned to shore only to come back in his speed boat with a large knife in hand, a .38 pistol in his back pocket and began to cut the anchor rope. Doc had a picture, but it has been lost in the years. Needless to say, the expedition gained energy and devotion.

Mick and Doc immediately hit it off and the exploration was in full swing. They lived and worked aboard the Rambler searching with only islander stories and a magnetometer, a scientific instrument used to measure the strength and direction of the magnetic field associated with iron artifacts in shipwrecks. The team actually modified the instrument to upgrade it to a prototype gradiometer which increased the performance and then used the magnometers in pairs to better locate the wrecks, elimnating small interferences. Present day gradiometers are considered the most sensitive and reliable magnometers.

Over the next three years, their efforts revealed ten wrecks, all apparently either Spanish or British most likely from the 18th century when battles between the two nations for the control of Old Port Royal were common. Eight of the wrecks were unreachable due to the depth of their position, some as deep as 90 feet. Without the proper recompression equipment on the island, it was (then) considered too dangerous to go down that deep risking the bends and possible death. Fortunately two wrecks laid in 15 feet of water, thanks to the lowering water levels surrounding the island over the past 200+ years. And thus, excavation began.

The Rambler was outfitted with a dredge pump with capabilities to handle 4, 6 and 8 inch suction hoses. Unlike most wreck sites where remains and relics can be scattered over as much as half a square mile or more, these two wrecks were relatively intact thanks to the fact that they laid within Roatan's protective barrier reef with provailing winds and tiny grains of coral sand acting as a natural preservative. The water conditions were ideal, clear and warm and without interference of hearsay treasure hunters due to the isolation of the island. Work commenced and findings became a daily occurance, some mundane, some amazing and some literally mind boggling.

Between 1740 and 1780, the British and the Spanish battled for control of Old Port Royal as it was a major colonial port. It was easy to get in and out of, had running water year round, could be easily defended and was a good place to do repairs on ships. One of the reachable wrecks, named PR4 ( Port Royal Find #4), looked to be a victim of one of the battles. The wreck was strongly believed to be British due to piping found on board and the mast and rudder sheathed in lead, rather than copper, which was not implemented until after the American Revolution of 1776. Doc recounts a story, supposedly originating from Roman times, that a coin was always placed under the main mast of a ship during its construction as a harbinger of good luck. The base of the mast on this particular wreck was still in place and thus the coin should have been there. The mast was carefully removed but there was no coin. Perhaps that was the problem - Doc says with a smile.

As fascinating as the finds on PR4 were, PR1 proved to be a whole different animal. Doc describes the discovery as something out of this world. When the PR1 wreck was initially spotted, Doc could not believe what he saw. The ribs of a thirty seven and a half foot wide ship lying quietly on the sand like a prehistoric dinosaur, perfectly intact in 15 feet of water. Excavation on this site initially indicated it was of Spanish origin due to the rudder design. The ship appeared to have sunk in a non-violent manner, upright and undisturbed. In the bow, lying like eggs stacked in crates, were over 40 amphorae, or Spanish olive jars, as if they were still waiting to be off loaded. It was the largest collection ever discovered on a shipwreck in recorded history. All were removed and carefully brought to the surface. One of the first things the team noticed was that some of the jars had been carefully repaired with tar. A quick test revealed that none of the ones intact leaked and that the volume of each of them was 15 liters within 2% error, an incredible feat, considering their suspected age. Clearly handmade with a curious maker's mark on the bottom, a new investigation began. One of the team (now the expedition was employing a growing number of divers) traveled to Italy to see if their suspicions were correct, that the mark belonged to one Nicola da Urbino in the Italian town of Urbino. They found that, in fact, he did produce fine china, but not amphorae, from 1476 until 1526. A curious dead end though it is well known that such marks were copied and reused over the years. The next step was to have them dated.

Eight shards of the amphoraes were sent to the University of Pennsylvania for analysis. An infrared spectrophotometer found residue inside the jars indicating a material to be an ester of wood rosin , a natural stabilizer additive used to keep oil suspended in water preserving the oil. The shards were then tested using a technique called thermoluminescence dating, a method used to determine the date of firing in ancient ceramics, thus the age. When the piece is originally fired, all stored energy is released and the build up of new energy begins again. If the piece is then reheated to the firing temperature, the amount of rebuilt energy is again released as light and can be measured. Accuracy is usually around +/-5%. The actual test results on the jars were astonishing. The amphoraes excavated from PR1 wreck site were dated to have been manufactured in 1200AD, 300 years prior to the claimed European discovery of the Bay Islands by Columbus in the year 1502. The results were supported by Goggins Classification, a paper published in 1960 dating ancient ceramics by John Goggin, former professor of archeology at Yale University. Goggins Classification places them to the middle age between 500AD and 1500AD. If these results were absolutely correct, the Oceanograficos de Honduras had made one of the greatest discoveries in marine archeology history.

In 1200AD, the Spanish peninsula, then known as Iberia, was ruled by Muslims, known a fierce warriors and expert sailors. Were they crossing the Atlantic and trading with the inhabitants of Roatan? Were the inhabitants of Roatan an outpost for the Mayans? Or perhaps the Vikings traveled much further than their reputed landings in North America. Maybe it was the Chinese, also reported to have sailed the world long before Columbus. The possibilities required more investigation and Doc knew it.

One night, Doc was having dinner with his friend, Eric Anderson, and a girl called BJ whose boyfriend was visiting from Washington DC. Doc was telling the story of the PR1 finds, and the boyfriend suggested contacting National Geographic. I wish I could, replied Doc, but where do you even start? Simple, answered the boyfriend, I have lunch with the president of the magazine every Tuesday and I will tell your story. Six months later, Doc's phone range. He had to be in DC the next morning, National Geographic wanted to speak with him. And so, he went.

Needless to say, the president of one the most prestigious historical and archeological magazines was extremely excited and intrigued by the findings at the wreck of PR1 in Old Port Royal. Grant papers were presented to Doc, filled out and submitted. The plan was to spend some time at the two major nautical history archives in the world: The British Museum in London and the Archives of the West Indies in Seville, Spain.

With the $25,000 grant from National Geographic approved and on the way, Doc and Mick presented their findings at The 6th International Conference on Underwater Archaeology in Charleston, South Carolina on January 7th 1975. There was a buzz of extreme excitement in the air, but, the buzz was quickly silenced.

For reasons that can only be self explained, the project was shut down and permits revoked. And that was the end. The crew, including Doc and Mick, dispersed. Most left the island and few are alive today. No one knows what became of Mick, but Doc presumes he is dead. As to the location of the wrecks, well, only one person knows that and though he has been approached many times to return to the sites, the answer is simple: not without a permit.

At the time, the future plans for the project included another five years of exploration and excavation. A new 105' ship had already been purchased after The Rambler had rolled over and sunk in the 1972 hurricane. Land had been purchased to create a marine sciences field research station. Groups from the University of Miami and Northern Illinois University had already signed up to visit and contribute. All would have been a tremendous benefit to the island of Roatan not only for the historic importance but also for the ensuing tourism trade. Obviously, the time was not right. Perhaps it is now.

Amphoras on the deck of the Rambler.
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History Lessons in Democracy by George Crimmin

Constitutive Power is more important Locke said that Constitutive Power is the right of the people to establish, alter or abolish government, as well as spell out to the government's elected representatives certain God given rights the people possess that cannot be tampered with, ever! Among the rights listed were life, liberty and owning property. Thomas Jefferson must have been a Locke disciple. Locke said this Constitutive power based as it is on protecting rights we are all born with, is above legislative power, which can be temporary. After all, through elections, legislatures come and go, and through repeal, so do the laws that they pass. But constitutive power doesn't change unless the government itself is changed. I would wager that the fathers of the American Revolution must've thought, this is awesome stuff! They were able to combine Locke's tenets with their own experience in self-government. They created a system that checked the "rulers" in two ways. First, their system insured frequent elections, so if the rulers pursued policies unpopular with the ruled (the people), they could be voted out of office quickly. And second, their system included a constitution and later a Bill of Rights that enshrined certain constitutive powers. The Bill of Rights guaranteed certain constitutive powers or rights in stone. For the common man this is his most effective weapon against abuse of power by the rulers. Among the powers granted are the freedoms of speech, to assemble, and be safe in your homes, to cite some examples. And, if these rights are violated, the people have the right, and the power to abolish that government altogether. My reaction to this was a resounding, yes! The door that historically had been barred to establishing a government truly based on popular sovereignty was finally, pardon the expression, un-Locked!

The success of the American Revolution set in motion a chain of events that swept through the Americas - paving the way for other countries to sever the chains of colonialism - including the original five Central American Republics of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. John Locke was centuries ahead of his time. He demonstrated incredible courage, considering the period in which he lived. We are told that courage is a result of reasoning; a brave mind is always impregnable.

During my college, even high school years, I was always captivated by philosophy - of course there were the great Greek philosophers, Aristotle, Plato and Socrates, but my favorite was the English philosopher John Locke. John Locke was born on August 29, 1632 - a very long time ago, yet many of his ideas are still relevant today. John Locke believed in the sovereignty of the people. His convictions and writings were crucial to the American Revolution. It was Locke who helped the founding fathers of the revolution turn the myth of popular sovereignty into reality. Before Locke - and the American Revolution he guided (through his writings) - the belief that government rests on the consent of the governed, or that "the people ruled" or that "power belongs to the people" (as the popular 1960's slogan went) was rubbish, or utter nonsense. The people weren't the rulers; the rulers were the rulers, especially in monarchies and dictatorships. It wasn't until the founding fathers of the American independence movement established a government that granted the people powers, in some cases even higher than those granted the rulers, that things began to change and true popular sovereignty was established. And their inspiration most scholars agree came from Locke's book, the Second Treatise on Civil Government, which affirmed that there are two kinds of power that the people possess, Legislative Power and Constitutive Power. Of the two,

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Chamber of Commerce By Jennifer Mathews

New Board of Directors Elected.

Newly elected uneven Board of Directors that have been elected are: President: Ana Svoboda; Fiscal: Charles George; Secretario: Edda Borjas; Pro-Secretario: Darnell Bodden; Vocal I: Gustavo Isnardi; Vocal I Alternate: Elmer Rene Flores; Vocal III: Mary Monterroso; Vocal III Alternate: Delzie Jackson-Rosales.

Even appointees remaining until 2011 are:
Vice President: Jack Clinton Everett; Pro Secretario: Darnell Bodden; Pro-Tesorero: Litia Moradel; Fiscal Suplente: Carlos Fernández; Vocal I Suplente: Elmer René Flores; Vocal II Suplente: Mitch Cummins; Vocal III Suplente: Delzie Jackson de Rosales; Vocal IV Suplente: David Bonilla.

Members in the even category are carried through from the previous year and will retain their posts through 2010.

Through conversations with Svoboda, plans for the Chamber include modernizing the Chamber system, bringing it up to date through a website, Facebook, and Twitter. I'm a "tweet," she said. "It's the way of the future."

Svoboda has plans to modernize the way the Chamber works, from networking meeting to online presence. The first collective Board meeting will be held on Thursday, May 27, and will focus on connecting members with the executive director, Albina Solomon.

"We're in the modern era; things are changing so fast; and we have to let the world know that we're here," said Svoboda. "It's a responsibility we have to our members," she said.

"I have to do this for the members, as everything is exploding."

The benefits of membership are to receive training seminars. Svoboda would like to tap into the resources of the varied and individual talents of the Chamber. "Maybe they can offer courses," she said. She aims to form a Special Events Committee which will meet every two months for networking.

Charles George, Edda Borjas, Mary Monterroso, Clinton Everett, Ana Sovboda gather for a photo on election day. Ana gives an interview to Canal 27.

On Saturday, May 22, the Chamber of Commerce held its Board of Directors elections at Plaza Mar. Lic. Ana Svoboda received an unexpected win by three votes as the prevailing winner on the docket. "I was out of the country when I was initially approached. I had two weeks to put together a plan," she said.

Svoboda is no stranger to public service or public relations and is currently operating G&S Industries, S.A., business with her husband. She has been a driving factor in public relations and networking on the Bay Islands, particularly in her new role as PR Director in the newly formed Rotary Club of Roatan. She is a member of G&S Industries S.A.-General Construction Co.; Roatan REALTOR-Island Properties; and Members of the National Association of Realtors; Honduras Chamber of Real Estate-CANABIRH Board of Directors; Bay Islands Chamber of Real Estate-CANABIRH/RRA Board of Directors; Bay Islands Chamber of Commerce Board of Directors; Member of Bay Islands Chamber of Tourism Board of Directors; Member of The Rotary Club of Roatan Member of Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic Parish-Roatan; Christmas Concert for the Angels; Roatan Animal Rescue; Member of Roatan Women's Club; and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

As energy prices climb By Jennifer Mathews Photograph by Benjamin Roberts
So Do Attempts to Rectify Tariffs

The Committee was to arrive at RECO on Monday the 24th, but due to inclement weather in Tegucigalpa, they arrived too late to evaluate RECO, but did hold a public hearing at the Roatan municipal building, along with public officials and leaders of the Patronado. The committee received grievances from the public and gave explanations about the upcoming procedures. As there were rumors of street demonstrations in los Fuertes the next morning when the commission was to visit RECO, Galindo made clear that people were welcome to vent complaints in a peaceful manner, but that anyone who took to the streets would be incarcerated. Given the threats that the cruise ships made last year about pulling out of the island Roatan stands to lose a massive amount of tourism dollars over any potential conflicts. According to Silvestri, the commission's full report should be completed by the 28th.

Diputado Silvestri is trying to push through the 150 subsidy before the next bill. This means that 45% of their customer base is eligible for the subsidy as they use less than 150 kwh (really 35%, take away the 0-10 range for vacation houses). The way this would work is that Zolitur would hold two months worth of the subsidy, and the central government would replenish the money allocated by Zolitur. "We have been fighting for this for two years and currently have an application in with Zolitur," said Warren. "It's taken us 2 years to convince the government that they would be giving money to a public utility, not a private entity." Romeo feels confident this will go through in July, if not before the session on the 10th, then by the end of July.

When asked why the islands have been ignored, Romeo responded, "I'm the first one who's really working on it!" Within three weeks of being sworn in as Diputado, the issue was on Silvestri's agenda. In Tegucigalpa, where we interviewed Romeo, he responded that he felt the environment very positive and that congress is very receptive.

As of May 21, RECO had only collected 1/3 of billings so far for the month of May. They were required to collect 2/3 by the 28th, just seven days later, and ultimately all the meters must be read by Sunday the 29th or risk being shut down.

Workers check and maintain RECO services on May 21

In the month of May, RECO customers saw a increase in their bills, which lead to high tensions and talk of dissent in the streets. Roatan mayor Julio Galindo appeared on television Channels 27, 7, and 9 on May 13, to assure the people of Roatan that he and Bay Islands Diputado Romeo Silvestri were working hard to find a solution to their grievances. He asked the constituents to wait until he returned from Tegucigalpa with a "positive outcome." While some misunderstood the message to mean that they should not pay their bills, Galindo reappeared on TV on the 16th, clarifying that bills would be due, but that RECO had agreed to grant a 10-day grace period before turning off people's lights. According to Richard Warren, president of RECO, the 10-day grace period began the day Galindo and Silvestri left for the capital, on the 18th. "We were happy to give it," he reported. "We want this thing to be resolved in the best way just as badly as everyone else."

According to Warren, by law, RECO must submit a new tariff every five years. This is submitted to the Commission on Energy to review and approve a new rate for the utility company. It has been almost 15 years since a review and new rate approval has been done, the last review carried out in 1996.

Galindo and Silvestri met with the president of ENEE, Secretary of Internal Affairs, Vice Minister of SERNA, Chief of Staff at the Presidential Palace, Vice President, and the President of the Commission of Energy, among others. A multidisciplinary committee was formed to visit Roatan for the purpose of evaluating RECO's tariffs, confirming financial proposals, and holding public hearings.

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Vocational Learning Comes to Roatan By John Morris Illustrated by Barbara Morris

A Transformation for One of Roatan’s Oldest Resorts

With cruise ships the king of tourism in the future, Mayor Julio Galindo wants more taxi drivers to speak English, as well as have an increased level of tourism skills. With construction starting again, contractors need skilled workers to ensure quality.

Finally, and most importantly, The Ministry of Education in Tegucigalpa has asked for PIER's help in educating teachers for both the mainland and Roatan. The project is back on. With a little hard work, Ted and Cam believe they can raise the money to fund the project along with the help of the community businesses who desperately need skilled labor. The only problem was, where to put the school?

After 25 years, the Bay Island Beach Resort was barely breaking even. Ted and Cam had always planned to eventually sell the resort and "retire". Having already missed the real estate crest, the decision was simple. The resort would be closed and the school moved in. And so on February 1st , the resort closed its doors and plans for the school accelerated. Plans for education include plumbing, electrical installation and repair, carpentry, diesel engine mechanics and a cooking school. Some will be taught at the resort, some will learn at the island's actual businesses which will then have the first shot at employing the students. The school will have several levels of skill that can be obtained, if so desired. In other words, a student may stop after level one is accomplished or may continue all the way to level five to then be considered a master of the profession. When asked the criteria for a student who wants to enroll, the simple answer was "desire."

PIER recently met with several other NGO's on the island in an effort to create a consortium to avoid overlap in efforts to find and import necessary supplies and assist each other, which, though still in its infancy is a real possibility. One thing is for sure, Ted and Cam have never been so busy and so appreciated.

The E-Leanring Center in Sandy Bay

Twenty five years ago, Ted and Cam O'Brien bought 44 acres of beach front property which included one of the oldest houses on the island, the Casa Blanca. Their dream of opening a resort was realized in the Bay Islands Beach Resort, which thrived and made memories for so many visitors over the years. What became evident to Ted and Cam was the lack of Hondurans in higher positions of responsibility in the resorts on the island and though they tried to change this in their own employment structure, it quickly became clear that most potential managers lacked the educational skills necessary "to move up the ladder." With Cam's past experience in education, Ted and Cam decided to change that and continue to this day with the newest project for the education of Hondurans on the island, a vocational school.

For those who have been on the island for some time, most know the previous work that Ted and Cam have done for the education system on Roatan. For the past five years, they have formed PIER (Partners In Education Roatan- a Honduran NGO which has certified 510c3 status in the USA), which now operates two e-learning centers in Sandy Bay and French Harbour.

PIER supplements all facets of education, from reading to math thanks to a generous donation from Learning Today out of Plantation, Florida. They provided a specialized computer software that automatically adjusts learning programs according to the student's current level of learning. The programs have been so successful, that there has been a 10-15% improvement in grades for participating students and there is now a waiting list for the Sandy Bay location.

With tourism and investment on the rise in Roatan, the need for skilled positions such as plumbers, carpenters and electricians was growing and once again Ted and Cam stepped in. Prior to the economic and government problems, the project to start the vocational school was on the verge of receiving a 1.5 million dollar grant from the EU. Unfortunately, due to a variety of problems, the grant was lost. However, all this has changed with the new government.

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